Category Archives: Tools
I was at IKEA the other week and saw the best error proofing for cart safety. If you haven’t been to an IKEA store, it is massive. The parking for our store is ground level and the store is on the second and third levels. Elevators are used to help get the carts down to the ground level as well as an escalator. The shopping carts have suction cups on the wheels that engage as you get on the flat escalator.
For safety reasons, IKEA does not want customers to take the flatbed carts down the escalator. Products could slide off and cause an accident. In line with the traditional mindset, there are signs posted showing a normal shopping cart is OK to take down the escalator and the flatbeds are not.
In a lean error proofing mindset, IKEA made it impossible to take the flatbeds down the escalator.
There are two poles that are four foot high as you enter the escalator. The normal shopping cart fits through the poles with a couple of inches to spare. The flatbed cart is made to be angled out wider so it can’t fit. The poles are also positioned so neither cart can enter from the side.
It was a great system that a lean person can truly appreciate.
Working for the automotive supplier, I had moved from industrial engineer to program manager and now into the lean group. The lean group comprised of just myself and one other, Joe Wilson who has contributed here at Beyond Lean.
One of our first assignments was to implement a plant-wide kanban system in 4 weeks. It was a mandate that came down from our Vice President to all the plants. In that short time, Joe and I had to learn about kanban, devise a system, create a simulation to teach 500 employees and implement the system.
Good thing we were young and full of energy back then, because I don’t know how we did it but we did. We developed kanban cards by color signifying which department the card need to return to in order to place the order for more parts. We then created a very simple Lego simulation. The simulation was good for 5-6 people at a time and allowed each person to be hands in order to create better learning. We also used the exact kanban card that we were going to put on the shop floor for the simulation so the employees got used to seeing them and could give feedback on them. We then trained 500 people on the simulation, five at a time across three shifts.
One rule we stressed the employees was, “Do NOT violate the kanban!” If you don’t have a card, you don’t build. Even if you know cards are in the internal customer’s hand and haven’t been brought to you. That holds the customer accountable for “ordering” the parts from the supplying department.
Everyone was ready to go live on our due date and we nailed it. Not saying there weren’t problems, but we hit the date and people were trying their best to follow the new procedures.
Then it happened. Our go-live date was mid-June. If you are familiar with the auto industry, everyone shuts down for retooling for a week or two around July 4th. So one week into the kanban system, our management was telling everyone to violate the kanban in order to build the bank of parts for the few shipments we have during the two week shutdown.
Yep. Violate the Number 1 Rule right out of the gate. It caused Joe and I a lot of rework after shutdown to get the kanban system back up and running. In the end, it worked well thanks to the great employees and the management support, but the false start didn’t help.
- Building the bank of parts for shutdown was the correct thing to do at July 4th. What we need to be more conscious of is when we start something. It would have been better to start the kanban training after shutdown so we didn’t have the false start and have management telling everyone to violate the number 1 rule right off the bat.
- We made kanban cards that were small. 4 inches x 3 inches or so. Cards were get dropped and lost quite a bit. It is better to make larger kanban cards (8 inches x 6 inches). It is harder to lose these because they are easier to see and don’t fit in pockets without folding a laminated card.
- Creating a simulation that allowed everyone to be hands-on and using the actual kanban card from the floor really helped to create learning, understanding and good dialogue with the employees.
In the past, I have posted several times about my experiments with kanban boards for my personal work. Below are the links to past posts.
The last post shows my failed experiment using Trello. I kept hearing other people say how much they liked Trello and how it well it worked for them. It has been about a year since I last tried Trello, so I thought I would give it another shot.
First, I reflected on why Trello didn’t work the first time so I wouldn’t make the same mistakes. There were two things that caused me quit using Trello. The first was how I separated my work. I had a board for each project. I had three projects so that would put my total WIP at 6 (max of 2 for each project). I had a hard time prioritizing my work and I was flipping between boards constantly.
The second thing I couldn’t work out was a way to include my weekly blog posts. I got tired of writing the exact same kanban card every week (“Write Blog Post”).
If Trello was going to work for me, I had to be able to deal with these two situations.
In the end, I realized I was making it too complicated. One board and using the labels would work for me.
I create five columns to organize my work.
- Posts to Be Written: This is a list of blog posts with the idea for the post written on each card. I can move this over to my Doing column when I am ready to write. It is a visual reminder to mix in my blog posts with my other work.
- Queue: A list of work to be done. The color labels in the top left-hand corner signify the type of work or the project.
- Doing: This is what I am currently working on with a WIP limit of 2
- Pen: This is a kanban card that is blocked from moving because I am waiting on work or information from someone else. I put a WIP limit of 3 on this and it seems to work for me.
- Done: When the work is complete the kanban card goes in this column. I archive the cards at the beginning of every week.
It’s not fancy, but it is effective. I now have access to my board at anytime, either on my computer, phone or tablet. So, if I remember something I can add it right away.
Are you using personal kanban? If so, how do you have yours set up?
Many of you may know that I have experimented with personal kanban boards, traditional and digital. In fact, I will have another update in a few weeks.
Today, I wanted to share with you an idea I saw but have not tried. It is using the desktop screen on the computer as a kanban board.
You can save a .jpg file of a kanban board as your Desktop background. This creates a permanent background to move Post-Its around on to show your flow of work.
You can then use the Post-It program that comes on Microsoft PCs now as your kanban cards and move them around, like you would on a physical board.
If you are a person who likes to have a lot of shortcuts on your desktop, then this can present an issue, because the Post-Its will cover up your shortcuts.
Another pointer I got from a different person, was to use the color of the Post-It to signify if you have completed a weekly task for this week.
For the first week, you can have the Post-It in blue and move it across your board. When it is time for the second week, you can change the Post-It color to green and move back to the queue.
If someone has tried this or does try it, I would love to hear about it. Leave a comment below or email me through the Contact page.
On my Downloads page, you can download the .jpg file of the kanban board pictured above.
I have been working with one group on how to make there work more visual. Show production goals versus actual production. Make safety standards clear. Highlight any problems to help them improve.
The supervisor of the area was on person leave when I was helping the area. Upon her return, she liked what we had done. In fact, she liked the idea so much that she made a visual board for another area where she is the supervisor.
What was the problem she was trying to solve? Employees were always asking what their goal for the day was. Employees would leave their work station and abandon their work to find the supervisor just to ask what the goal was. The supervisor posted this board in the work area.
This reminds of Gwendolyn Galsworth’s book Visual Workplace Visual Thinking. One of the questions of the visual workplace is “What do I need to share?”. Goals and standards were something this supervisor needed to share with her team.
The board is simple and effective.
What have you made visual? What do you need to share?
Karen Martin and Mike Osterling are consultants that have been helping companies with seeing their business through a different lens. Karen and Mike have co-authored two books in the past: The Kaizen Event Planner, a well written how-to guide for planning, executing and following up after a kaizen event and Metrics-Based Process Mapping, a how-to for using key metrics to analyze and improve processes. Value Stream Mapping is their third book together and again they have done a fantastic job.
Name of the Book: Value Stream Mapping: How to Visualize Work and Align Leadership for Organizational Transformation
Author: Karen Martin and Mike Osterling
Publication Date: December 2013
Book description: what’s the key message?
Karen and Mike explain the in’s and out’s of understanding and completing a value stream map. They discuss how a value stream map is a tool that can help senior leaders and executives see their business in a new way. A transformative way.
Karen and Mike take the reader through all the steps. They explain the importance of setting the stage prior to the starting the value stream map in order to enable success in changing the business. Karen and Mike also walk the reader through the best ways to understand the current state of the business and the importance of understanding the current reality no matter how sobering it is. Next they walk the reader through developing the future state and then the transformation plan.
This book is not just a “Go do it this way,” book. The book is very complete and explains why the process they describe works.
What are the highlights? What works?
Most people miss the main point of value stream maps. They are about changing the mindsets of an organization through building a strategic direction with a lean lens. Karen and Mike do a great of reiterating this point throughout the book.
If you have never seen or been through a value stream mapping session this book is a great guide. The explanations are spot on. Karen and Mike hit on the most important metrics that can be used on a value stream map in order to get the most out of it. They explain how the map is not complete without the metrics, which is something a lot of people will leave off when doing the map.
The examples of value stream maps in the back of the book can help a reader with guidance in building their own. I know they are in the appendices but it is worth it to study all the examples.
The book also has a link to a downloadable charter and transformation plan templates. I found them to be very helpful.
What are the weaknesses? What’s missing?
The book is very well done. Not only a step-by-step but a great explanation of why for each step. There is one thought that I believe is missing in doing a value stream map. That is the concept and discussion around ideal state.
When doing a value stream map, I find invaluable to have a discussion on the difference between ideal state (perfection) and future state (somewhere between current state and ideal state). Usually, this discussion takes place after building the current state map. The team writes out bullet points of what the ideal state would look like. After that is completed, then build the future state. The ideal state discussion helps to stretch the thinking of the team and as Karen and Mike put it “help change the DNA of the organization.”
Having a direct conversation around ideal state is a step that I feel is important and I wish Karen and Mike would have spent some time on in the book.
How should I read this to get the most out of it?
The book can be used in two ways. One way is by someone that has been tasked to help an organization create a value stream map. It can be used as a learning text book. It can help the reader learn the in’s and out’s of creating a value stream map and give them guidance. Or even as a refresher for an experienced value stream map facilitator.
Another way for the book to be used is as an education piece for executives and senior leaders that want to change their business. It can help them understand their role in the value stream transformation process and how they can help the facilitator before, during and after a mapping session.
Kudos to Karen and Mike for another great book.
I saw a post from Michel Baudin, Is OEE a Useful Key Performance Indicator? I don’t think it is. A few years back I wrote a blog about OEE and how it is very unclear as to what is really happening in a facility. It violates nearly every rule as to what is a clear and relevant metric.
Michel’s post started out with a bit from Jeffrey Liker’s post about OEE. This is the piece I found interesting from Jeffrey Liker:
Ignacio S. Gatell questions whether companies using OEE really understand it, can explain it clearly to their customers, and understand what it means to compare OEE as a KPI across plants. He questions whether even plant managers understand how it is calculated and what it means.
The only good argument for OEE is that at a macro-level in a plant it provides a high level picture of how your equipment is functioning.
I have to agree with Liker’s statement. OEE is good for a macro level idea of what is happening but you can’t understand what is happening without splitting it up into the components. Seems like Michel Baudin is thinking the same thing.
It is an overly aggregated and commonly gamed metric that you can only use by breaking it down into its constituent factors; you might as well bypass this step and go straight to the factors.
This is one of those blogs that gives me some of my sanity back. OEE seems to be so entrenched in “good business practices” it is hard to get people to move away from it. I get a lot of looks like I am completely crazy when I bring up my point of view. Thanks, Jeffrey and Michel. I see I’m not the only one now.
I really like seeing more and more organizations trying to implement lean. Seeing organizations start to understand lean and want to improve using the lean mindset and principles is very refreshing. A great step in the right direction.
But not all lean starts are created equally. Or for that matter even get off on the right foot.
I recently saw a company giving a presentation on some HR practices and apprenticeship. They were doing some really great stuff around apprenticeship for a machining shop.
What caught my eye was their comments about lean and aligning to value streams. The company listed their value streams on a slide. The first few sounded more like machining functions rather than a value stream but I don’t understand the business so I could be wrong. Then I saw the bottom half of the list: Accounting, Project Management, Human Resources, etc…
Yikes! These are not value streams. These are functions that support value streams.
Misunderstanding of value streams is quite normal. In order to be a value stream, it has to create value for the customer. To understand what creates value a company has to have a definition of value.
I use one I learned from the Lean Learning Center:
- The customer must be willing to pay for it
- It must change the form, fit or function of the product/service
- It must be done right the first time
In a machining shop, accounting does not create any value for the customer. Nor does Project Management.
Value streams are linked process that create value to a product or service for customer. The are not departments (accounting , project management) or functions (milling, cutting).
Grasping the true meaning of value streams and what your companies value streams are can really open your eyes to the improvement possibilities.
Then I tried again. I had great success with the 2nd board. I used it for a year and a half.
With a new role where I have multiple desks, I am constantly in different areas of the building. I may not be back to my desk for several days or even a couple of weeks. I wasn’t able to keep my board up and I had work to do written in several places.
I wanted to find an electronic kanban that would work for me. I found one that worked well. It was a computer only board. I explain it more in this post here.
This new electronic kanban work well. I could take a note or email myself on my phone with what needed to be on it and then transfer it when I got to my computer. If I had my computer with my, I just added right then.
As a person always looking to eliminate waste, you can see where there was waste in emailing myself and then re-typing it for the kanban board. A friend of mine recommended Trello for me to try. It was web-based. I was able to download an app to my phone which I could open and enter the work and not send myself emails to re-enter.
Everything looked great so I gave it a try for the last 3 months of last year.
It wasn’t hard to use. It had plenty of features and it was setup very similar to the electronic kanban I was using. For some reason, I couldn’t get the flow of it. Trello was not working for me. I tried for three months and I couldn’t get into the flow of using it and making my life easier to manage.
I have no idea why it didn’t click with me but it was a disaster. I forgot some things that needed to be done. I felt disorganized and stressed.
So, to start 2014 I am going back to my electronic kanban board on my computer and not using Trello. I already feel more organized and less stressed since I switched back.
I’m not dismissing Trello yet. I need to reflect as to why it wasn’t working for me. Was it something truly with Trello? Or did it have something to do with the enormous project I was on and I just couldn’t keep up with trying something new at the same time?
The important thing is to understand what was happening because maybe Trello can work for me and help me reduce my waste in maintaining my kanban board.
Learning is important and not just living with a change because we need to change. The change needs to be given a fair chance and if it is failing then you can’t be scared to change back if necessary.
Does anyone else have any experiences with a change that totally failed?
During some recent blog reading, I was spurred to think about a past situation when a company I worked for was buying new equipment and how WRONG this decision was.
I had been with the company for about four weeks when I heard about a capital expenditure my director had just approved to buy nine more of a patented machine. My company owned the patent. That would give us a total of 99 of these machines.
First question I asked, “Why are we buying more of these machines?”
The response was a typical one, “We they need more capacity because we are meeting the demand.”
I didn’t ask anymore questions at that point. I decided to go and see for myself. This was easy because the corporate offices we were in was part of the main manufacturing building. I had to walk about 100 yards.
During my observations I found two things:
- The overall OEE of the 90 machines was around 35-40% when it was running.
- At anytime I never saw more than 50 of the 90 machines running. This was because we never had enough people to run all the machines.
After a few hours of direct observation, it was clear there was no understanding of what was really going on.
First, attack changeovers and downtime to get the OEE of the machine up to the 75% range.
Second, why buy more machines if we can’t staff them?!
By my calculations, if the OEE was raised to the 75% range, not only would we not have to buy more machines we could get ride of about 20-25 machines we already had. That would mean our current staffing would be pretty close to what we needed.
I presented this to my new boss and the director, but by this time it was too late. The money had been cut and were pretty much crated and on the road to our facility.
This is why companies should question any new capital expenditures. Companies should be maintaining and using what they have first. The OEE should be at least 70% if not higher before considering adding more capacity through spending.
Do not make any decisions about capital expenditures until the current state is thoroughly understood. The best way to do that is to go and see for yourself.